Goal one focuses on ending poverty through interrelated strategies, including the promotion of social protection systems, decent employment and the resilience of the poor.
Although the global rate of extreme poverty has been reduced by more than half since 2000, intensified efforts are required to boost the incomes, alleviate the suffering and build the resilience of those still impoverished, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.
Social protection systems need to be expanded and risks mitigated for disaster-prone countries, which tend to be among the world’s poorest countries.
Many of the world’s workers live in extreme poverty due to a lack of decent work opportunities. Almost 10 per cent of the employed population globally lived with their families on less than 1.90 US dollars per person per day in 2016.
While the percentage of the “working poor” has been cut by more than half since 2000—when it stood at 28 per cent—it remains pervasive in a few regions.
In sub-Saharan Africa, 34 per cent of workers and their families continued to live in extreme poverty in 2016.
Working poverty affects youth at a much higher rate than adults: in 2016, 15 per cent of young workers worldwide lived under the international poverty line, compared to 9 per cent of adult workers. This pattern holds true across almost all regions.
Poverty reduction in Tanzania remains a challenge. Approximately 68 per cent of its 55 million citizens live below the poverty line of $1.25 a day and 16 per cent of its children under 5 are malnourished.
The most prominent challenges Tanzania faces in poverty reduction are unsustainable harvesting of its natural resources, unchecked cultivation, climate change and water- source encroachment, according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
There are very few resources for Tanzanians in terms of credit services, infrastructure or availability to improved agricultural technologies, which further exacerbates hunger and poverty in the country according to the UNDP.
Seventy-six per cent of Tanzanians rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, yet only 46 per cent of its landmass is currently used for agriculture. Tanzania ranks 159 out of 187 countries in poverty according to the United Nation’s Human Development Index (2014).
The level of poverty in Tanzania is high. The definition of poverty is a contentious point, which differs from one country to another. There are also varying degrees of poverty. From a broader perspective, poverty is defined as "the state of being extremely poor" and is understood by many to mean the lack of basic necessities such as food, water, shelter, healthcare, and primary education.
Unicef argues that, whilst Tanzania has made great efforts in meeting its domestic and international targets in the alleviation of child poverty especially in the areas of education and healthcare, child poverty is still an important issue for the country.
Most of Tanzania's population lives in rural areas with a heavy dependency on rain-fed agriculture (76 per cent of people rely on agriculture for livelihood) and on access to natural resources.
Therefore, these people are highly vulnerable to climate changes. Due to the lack of knowledge and infrastructure to develop and implement some kind of agricultural technology, any droughts, floods or temperature shocks can severely damage the living standards of those people and create increases in unemployment, hunger, malnutrition and diseases rates (with special mention to HIV/AIDS), as well as, in really severe cases, mortality rates due to starvation.