They can be set up for a sitting posture or for a squatting posture (squat toilet). Flush toilets are usually connected to a sewer system in urban areas and to septic tanks in less built-up areas. Dry toilets are connected to a pit, removable container, composting chamber, or other storage and treatment device. Toilets are commonly made of ceramic (porcelain), concrete, plastic, or wood.
In private homes, the toilet, sink, bath, or shower may be in the same room. Another option is to have one room for body washing (bathroom) and another for the toilet and handwashing sink (toilet room). Public toilets consist of one or more toilets (and commonly urinals) which are available for use by the general public. Portable toilets or chemical toilets may be brought in for large and temporary gatherings.
Many poor households in developing countries use very basic, and often unhygienic toilets, for example simple pit latrines and bucket toilets which are usually placed in outhouses. Globally, nearly one billion people have no access to a toilet at all, and are forced to do open defecation (particularly in India). Diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route or via water, such as cholera and diarrhea, can be spread by open defecation. They can also be spread by unsafe toilets which cause pollution of surface water or groundwater. Historically, sanitation has been a concern from the earliest stages of human settlements. The Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 calls for adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation by 2030. In this wise a prototype of a toilet utilizing viscoelasticity has been developed which is practically frictionless.
In Tanzania the number of households with better toilets in the country has increased up to 62.4 per cent in 2019 from 34 per cent in 20215, thanks to a two-year “The Home is Toilet” campaign conducted by the Ministry of Health.
This has been revealed by the Minister for Health, Community Development, Gender Elderly and Children, Ummy Mwalimu at the climax of the national Environment Cleanliness Week meeting involving district and regional medical officers and other stakeholders held in Dodoma.
Minister Mwalimu said in the two years of the campaign households with better toilets have increased and those without toilets at all have gone down from 7.5 per cent to 1.9 per cent.
He said for villages, households that have toilets increased from 743 to 3,311 and for the institutions they succeeded in improving water provision and cleanliness to the environment at 1,267 health centres, while the target was 1,000 health centres.
She said these achievements must not be disregarded, adding that basically she conveys her thanks to stakeholders who worked in collaboration with the government for their participation in the campaign as the Ministry’s plan is to attain 75 per cent by June 2021.
She said on the issue of garbage dumps, the government has deliberate plans in improving dump sites especially those within urban centres.
She however said environmental destruction from solid waste has continued to be a big challenge in urban areas; hence the government has mobilised itself to facilitate concerned local government institutions to improve their existing infrastructures.
She said the government has prepared guidelines for investment on solid waste to woo investment so as to improve the entire efforts in the supervision of solid waste disposal in the country.
The minister said research show the country was losing at least one percent of its GDP due to poor environment management and 2012 World Bank Research showed that every year 450bn/- is lost due to poor environment.